Wednesday, November 18, 2009

Merging Antisense with RNAi Therapeutics to Create Fitter Companies

Yesterday’s long awaited data presentation on phase III results from ISIS Pharmaceutical’s lead antisense gene knockdown program was met by disappointment in the investor community: ISIS down over 15% on the day. While the exciting news is that the drug, mipomersen, looks like it is very close for approval for the severe, but very rare condition of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hoFH) and importantly also possibly other forms of highly elevated LDL-cholesterol, part of the disappointment may be related to the long-term outlook on antisense for gene/mRNA knockdown: a 27% reduction in ApoB levels following 6 months of 200mg weekly injections with a safety profile (a number of cases of elevated liver enzymes, injection side reactions) that may be adequate for the severe cases of hypercholesterolemia, but not necessarily for less severe diseases. And this is for an organ, the liver, which has one of the best pharmacologies for antisense. Also, while a 27% knockdown may be therapeutic for a few targets, especially in metabolic disease, for most other targets it is insufficient.

Lack of high-quality gene knockdown opportunities would lead to an inefficient use of its capital that includes an enviable $600M+ cash pile and an equally remarkable cash-flow from their ‘satellite businesses’. Maybe partly because of this realization, but also of course because it believes that its IP is transferable to all areas it considers antisense, ISIS is not standing still and continues to innovate in areas such as RNAi Therapeutics and the promising gain-of-function antisense technologies of splice modulation and microRNA inhibition.

On the other side of the fence, RNAi Therapeutics is also facing a challenging investment environment. Capital is particularly difficult to raise for early-stage platform technologies. While some companies such as Alnylam, Tekmira, Sirna Therapeutics (historical example), and mdRNA are making good strides in establishing broad RNAi drug development platforms, this alone does not make up for lack of steady newsflow from mid- to late-stage clinical results that can support rich valuations in biotech. This is also not helped by some obvious mis-steps within the industry itself with the main sins being spending money on lawsuits and prematurely entering programs into the clinic, ironically not least in an attempt to keep investor interest levels high.

By merging with antisense, both the pipeline maturity profile could be enhanced and resources spent more efficiently by avoiding the temptation of entering programs into the clinic prematurely and otherwise weeding out programs that serve to artificially fill pipelines. The latter point, of course, would also apply to the antisense company, and the antisense company would further benefit from gaining access to the most potent and therapeutically promising gene knockdown technology known, RNAi Therapeutics. As the intricate relationship between Alnylam and ISIS Pharmaceuticals or the acquisition of Coley as a launch pad for Pfizer’s RNAi Therapeutics ambitions demonstrate, the scientific barriers for such mergers should be relatively minor. One risk, however, that cannot be ignored, particularly for those companies that have been built for sale, is that by combining various drug development platforms, the new entity may become a less attractive candidate for a Big Pharma acquisition. When it comes to mere survival, however, a combination should be the lesser evil.

I will now briefly discuss three fantasy combinations, at least one of which I would speculate to see within the next year.

1) Alnylam Pharmaceuticals and ISIS Pharmaceuticals (probably not within the next year). Without a doubt the most influential and potent leaders in RNAi Therapeutics and antisense, respectively. Already highly entangled through their IP cross-licensing agreements and microRNA therapeutics spin-off Regulus, a combination would create an almost cash flow-positive dream team with over $1B in cash, blocking IP, unmatched expertise in nucleic acid chemistry, clinical pharmacology, and RNAi Therapeutics. First revenues from the sales of mipomersen and continued IP licensing revenues would support a solid pipeline consisting of mipomersen label extensions, RNAi Therapeutics opportunities for liver and solid cancers, full ownership of the miR-122 program for the treatment of HCV, and transitioning antisense towards splice modulation, microRNA inhibition (with Regulus), and possibly other gain-of-function antisense applications. As part of the re-organization, some programs could easily be sacrificed without punishment by the markets. John Maraganore would be the CEO of the combined company, allowing Stanley Crooke to follow his passion in the science of oligonucleotide therapeutics.

2) mdRNA and AVI Biopharma (how soon?). The transition of antisense for gene knockdown to gain-of-function applications is most noticeable in the case of AVI Biopharma. After many years of attempting gene knockdown with their steric-block morpholinos, the company finds success in applying its technology for the modulation of gene splicing. It is considered the closest competitor to Prosensa’s Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy exon skipping program which has only recently entered an attractive $25M upfront plus multimillion bio$$$ milestone and royalty deal with GSK after a series of high-profile publications on DMD-related exon skipping. The partnership potential of AVI’s DMD program then as well as its recent capital raising should provide the needed capital cushion for the combined company to invest in RNAi Therapeutics for gene knockdown and some new splice modulation opportunities. mdRNA, of course, is scheduled to run out of cash early next year and it would be a miracle if the two companies had not contemplated such a merger, particularly after AVI Biopharma moved in as mdRNA’s neighbor not too long along up from Oregon. With AVI’s cash reserve, the combined company may then find it easier to attract platform partners for mdRNA’s technology further bolstering the financials.

3) Silence Therapeutics and Archemix (not really an antisense company, but close enough). It is almost two months now that Silence announced to be in reverse merger talks. Since then, however, not a word except for so-so news on the results of opposition proceedings at the EPO related to their core patent. What Silence needs is cash (who doesn’t?), and what it can offer is a phase I cancer program, RNAi Therapeutics drug development expertise, and an siRNA structure that is not without use, although facing very serious patent challenges. What Archemix needs with its growing pipeline is access to public markets as evidenced by a previously failed reverse takeover attempt with cash-rich NitroMed, as does by the way Quark Pharmaceuticals which should also be counted as a possible Silence Therapeutics merger candidate. The fact that Silence Therapeutics has some aptamer in its blood line and the increased investment by Archemix into aptamer-mediated delivery of RNAi (Dicerna) and microRNA (miRagen) Therapeutics should help a combined company find a common language. Until any such deal is announced, however, Archemix would have to be prepared though that yet another potential partner will walk away from it last minute as Silence Therapeutics should also be receptive to other offers.

Which one is the most likely combination? Add your vote on the right.


Anonymous said...

My guess is Silence and Quark

Joe said...

ISIS and TKM makes the most sense...access to 7 targets...already a good relationship with ALNY...reinvent themselves as a RNAi company quickly and cheaply.

Dirk Haussecker said...

I agree that Silence and Quark may be an equally, or even more likely possibility compared to Silence and Archemix. I just brought Archemix into the mix as a non-RNAi Therapeutics example.

ISIS, I believe already has ample rights to developing RNAi Therapeutics, both single- and double-stranded. Of course, delivery technologies would allow it to target the gene knockdown to certain organs, whereas with the injection of phosphorothioate oligos only, you pretty much always get the same biodistribution and similar tox. That should be one of the reasons for their Novosom (neutral) liposome relationship.

Anonymous said...

I dont see Quark-SLN as too likely.
Quark has been stating its own proprietary technology, so wouldnt need SLN's

Merger would though remove the need for it to pay future milestones/royalties to SLN.
It would also add a clinical product.

SLN-Archemix gets my vote

Very interesting comments regarding ALNY-ISIS. A merger would make a great deal of sense

Anonymous said...

suggest a company composed of minors...why doesnt a big pharma pick up Benitec, RXII (which could potentially allow some good IP at least),Calando, MDRNA-you could probably pick up the lot for a song. An alternative to getting a platform from ALNY?

Anonymous said...


Factor in the egos of all the
guys that run these companies and
the chances or mergers vanishes.

Anonymous said...

Thanks for the new background!
Much easier to read, at least for this old guy.

Anonymous said...

Isn't JM on the BOD for Archemix? Any thoughts on what, if any, implications this might have if there is a reverse merger with Silence.

Dirk Haussecker said...

The same, certainly interesting question applies to Archemix' collaborations with Dicerna (direct Alnylam competitor) and miRagen (a Regulus competitor). I would think that he has to excuse himself when it comes to these decisions and over the long term it's possible that it may not be the best fit.

Anonymous said...

I'm not sure that Archemix' relationship with Alnylam competitors alone would preclude JM from serving as an Archemix director (obviously it doesn't because these are existing relationships). When I asked the question I was thinking about Silence' opposition to K-L with the EPO. I think there are two possibilities; either JM would have to recuse himself from voting on a merger and then resign if the merger took place, or the new company would have to drop its opposition to K-L and would keep JM as a director. Maybe the latter possibility greatly exaggerates both JM's influence and Alnylam's future strategic importance for Archemix.


By Dirk Haussecker. All rights reserved.

Disclaimer: This blog is not intended for distribution to or use by any person or entity who is a citizen or resident of, or located in any locality, state, country or other jurisdiction where such distribution, publication, availability or use would be contrary to law or regulation or which would subject the author or any of his collaborators and contributors to any registration or licensing requirement within such jurisdiction. This blog expresses only my opinions, they may be flawed and are for entertainment purposes only. Opinions expressed are a direct result of information which may or may not be accurate, and I do not assume any responsibility for material errors or to provide updates should circumstances change. Opinions expressed in this blog may have been disseminated before to others. This blog should not be taken as investment, legal or tax advice. The investments referred to herein may not be suitable for you. Investments particularly in the field of RNAi Therapeutics and biotechnology carry a high risk of total loss. You, the reader must make your own investment decisions in consultation with your professional advisors in light of your specific circumstances. I reserve the right to buy, sell, or short any security including those that may or may not be discussed on my blog.