Wednesday, December 13, 2017

Dicerna Exploits HBV Biology For Less Frequent RNAi Dosing

Despite recent findings by Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals suggesting that finite treatment with an RNAi medicine might be possible in the search for a (functional) cure of HBV, less frequent dosing is always a plus.  It now seems that fresh HBV entrant Dicerna may have stumbled across a way to reduce dosing frequency and at the same time uncovered an intriguing piece of HBV biology involving the mysterious HBV X protein (HBx).

Search for perfect RNAi target site uncovers important HBV biology

Gene knockdown trigger selection has become critical in a highly competitive field featuring not only Arrowhead and Dicerna, but also Arbutus, Ionis (along with partner GSK), and the Alnylam-Vir alliance in the Western World alone.  This is because ‘by rotten luck’, Arrowhead found that an RNAi trigger that was designed to hit all the HBV transcript did not take into account the absence of the target site on transcripts that derive from host chromosomally integrated HBV.    

The finding that in many patients, e-antigen negative patients in particular, most viral transcripts derive from integrated HBV, has to be considered the most important new discovery in HBV biology and  disease progression since the finding of NTCP as the viral entry receptor.

This has established the selection of a target site upstream of the integration breakpoint as the new industry standard.  Little did we know that the search of the perfect RNAi target site should yield another fundamental insight into HBV biology that could also be therapeutically valuable and provide for some important competitive differentiation for late entrant Dicerna.     

HBx-sparing RNAi trigger has dramatic impact on HBV core protein localization

When scanning the HBV genome for target sites, Dicerna found that an RNAi trigger that hits all HBV transcripts except for HBx was associated with considerably more sustained gene silencing following a single dose (>>8 weeks in a mouse model where GalNAc-RNAi is generally less long-lived compared to humans) compared to an RNAi trigger hitting all HBV transcripts without exception (~3 weeks until knockdown was considerably lessened). 

Further underlining the longevity of the effect, Arbutus’ LNP-based formulation was only able to produce 1 week of good gene silencing in the same (HDI; slide 6) mouse model.

Interestingly, this effect was correlated with striking differences in the cellular localization of the HBV core protein: when all gene products were equally targeted, core protein was predominantly in the nucleus.  By contrast, core protein was almost exclusively cytoplasmic when HBx was spared.  Since phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain is known to be important for HBx nuclear trafficking, it was speculated that HBx may bind in that region and thus mask the nuclear localization signal.  This would be useful during the late stages of a viral infection when core protein would be needed for pregenomic RNA packaging and ultimately viral release.

The reason why gene silencing would be shorter lived when core was in the nucleus is likely due to its stimulating activity on transcription from the HBV cccDNA which would increase transcript dynamics and thus more quickly dilute out the anti-HBV-loaded RNAi machinery in the cytoplasm.

Indeed, in a non-cccDNA-dependent mouse model (e.g. more reminiscent of e-antigen negative patients), this beneficial effect was not observed.  

In summary, while the mechanistic basis of the differential silencing phenomenon remains to be fully fleshed out by further experimentation, Dicerna has found a way to quite dramatically extend gene silencing and thus decrease drug administration frequency.  This is a useful competitive feature in antivirals in general where drug resistance due to missed doses is always a concern and also simply due to patient convenience.

Disclosure: long DRNA.
By Dirk Haussecker. All rights reserved.

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